The current state of climate change we are experiencing due to the increase of CO2 emissions worldwide reveals that, although the share of renewable energy in the primary energy supply is growing, all countries must significantly increase their efforts to decarbonize their energy sector in the future.  

Challenges in the decarbonization of the energy sector  is a publication aiming to contribute to the decarbonization efforts by providing a basis for a better understanding of its associated challenges.  In the current research literature, the challenges of decarbonization of the energy sector are usually categorized into technological, economic and social . The main challenge is the reduction of fossil fuel use in the end-use sectors, so viability criteria for the transition to REbased electricity systems are also introduced. For this, long-term financing and policies to ensure decarbonization while contributing to economic development are required. Moreover, public acceptance of technology options as well as acceptable of energy prices and benefits to the communities are addressed in this context. There is no carbon-free technology to be limited a priori. In the political dimension, country and regional policies need to be consistent with international decarbonization strategies and enable economic growth. A global carbon tax is presented as the most promising instrument to accelerate the process of decarbonization. Nevertheless, this process is bound to be very challenging for humanity due to high capital investment requirements, the competition among energy sectors for decarbonization options, inconsistent environmental policies and public acceptance of changes in energy use. 

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