Depletion of fossil fuels necessitates an energy transition. Renewable energy development shifts supply from fixed producers to decentralized prosumers. Geothermal energy, an efficient low-carbon thermal option, receives widespread attention. China has significant geothermal resources for power generation. CO2-Plume geothermal (CPG) and hybrid systems improve efficiency and viability. CO2 hybrid cogeneration outperforms conventional systems. Shallow ground source heat pumps (SGSHP) and waste heat recovery are important. The “Full-scale utilization of geothermal energy: A high-efficiency CO2 hybrid cogeneration system with low-temperature waste heat” study establishes a comprehensive model for geothermal energy utilization, exploring synergies between CPG, GSHP, and waste heat recovery. Results confirm practicality and superiority of this hybrid system. 

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